New State – “Black Hole Strange Physics”

New State -

“God not only plays dice but … he sometimes throws them where they are not visible,” Stephen Hawking said of the paradoxical physics of black Holes. Welcome to the bizarre quantum world of “strange metals” – a new state of matter.

Share Remarkable Properties with Black Holes

“The fact that we call them strange metals must tell you how well we understand them. Strange metals share remarkable properties with black holes, opening up exciting new directions for theoretical physics, ”he says. Olivier Parcollet, a senior researcher at the Flatiron Institute Center for Computational Quantum Physics (CCQ), about the quantum world of metals dissipating energy as fast as they are allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics. The electrical resistance of a strange metal, unlike that of an ordinary metal, is proportional to the temperature.

Even by the standards of quantum physicists, reports the Flatiron Institute, strange metals are just plain weird. Generating a theoretical understanding of strange metals is one of the biggest challenges in physically condensed matter.

A challenge posed by the creator of quantum physics and a Nobel laureate, Max Planck’s realization that science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature. “And that’s because,” he said, “in the final analysis, we’re ourselves part of the mystery we’re trying to solve.”

A new state of matter

Now, using cutting-edge computer techniques, researchers from the Flatiron Institute and Cornell University report in an article accepted in tthe Activities of the National Academy of Sciences uncle strange metals it is a new state of matter.

A slight wobble shakes the foundations of physics

In the quantum mechanical world, electrical resistance is a byproduct of electrons pushing things. When electrons flow through a metal, other electrons or impurities bounce off the material. The longer there is between these collisions, the lower the electrical resistance.

Beyond the Planck Scale – Laws of Physics are broken

For typical metals, electrical resistance increases with temperature, following a complex equation. But in unusual cases, such as when a high-temperature superconductor is heated just above the point where it stops superconducting, the equation becomes much simpler. In strange metal, electrical conductivity is directly linked to temperature and to two fundamental constants of the universe: the Planck constant (h) and the Boltzmann constant (k).

Planck’s fundamental physical constant links the amount of energy a photon carries with the frequency of its electromagnetic wave. Boltzmann’s constant on physics is the proportional factor that relates the kinetic energy of particles in a gas to the thermodynamic temperature of the gas.

The Planck scale sets the minimum limit of the universe, beyond which the laws of physics are broken.

“Planckian Metals”

“In the late 1890s,” he observes Symmetry, “Physicist Max Planck proposed a set of units to simplify the expression of physical laws. Using only five constants in nature (including the speed of light and the gravitational constant), you, me and even Alpha Centauri aliens could arrive at these same Planck units. “

Therefore, strange metals are also called Plankkian metals.

“Overlays” – The Cosmic Oddity of Quantum Mechanics

Models of strange metals have existed for decades, but precisely solving them has proved unattainable by existing means. Quantitative entanglements between electrons mean that physicists cannot treat the electrons individually, and the large number of particles in a material makes the calculations even more frightening.

Two Different Methods for Solving the Problem

Cornell’s physicist Peter Cha and colleagues used two different methods to break the problem. First they used a quantum input method based on ideas developed by CCQ director Antoine Georges in the early 90s. By this method, instead of performing detailed computations across the entire quantum system, physicists make detailed calculations of only a few atoms and treat the rest of the system more simply. They then used a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (named after the Mediterranean casino), which uses random sampling to calculate the answer to a problem. The researchers solved the model of strange metals to absolute zero (minus 273.15 degrees Celsius), the unattainable lower limit for temperatures in the universe.

Limits Two Previously Known Phases of Matter

The resulting theoretical model reveals the existence of foreign metals as a new state of matter bordering on two previously known phases of matter: Mott-insulating spindles and Fermi liquids.

Behemoth – “That Ends Time and Space and the Laws of Physics”

“We found that there is an entire region in the phase space that shows Planckian behavior that belongs to neither of the two phases between which we transition,” says Cornell physics professor. Eun-Ah Kim. “This quantum respiratory fluid state is not as blocked, but it is also not completely free. It is a sluggish, soupa, slow state. It is metallic but reluctantly metallic, and it pushes the degree of chaos to the limit of quantum mechanics. “

“Ringing Black Holes”

The new work could help physicists better understand the physics of super-temperature superconductors. Perhaps surprisingly, the work has links to astrophysics. Like strange metals, black holes show properties that depend only on temperature and the Planck and Boltzmann constants, such as the time when a black hole “rings” after fusion with another black hole.

“The fact that you find this same scale across all these different systems, from Plank metal to black holes, is fascinating,” Parcollet says.

Source: Peter Cha et al, Linear resistance and Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) spin liquid behavior in quantum critical metal with spin-1/2 fermions, Activities of the National Academy of Sciences (2020). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2003179117

The Daily Galaxy, Jackie Faherty, astrophysicist, Chief Scientist with AMNH per Symmetry and The Simons Foundation. Jackie used to be A guy from NASA Hubble at the Carnegie Institution for Science.

Image credit: Shutterstock License

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“God not only plays dice … but he sometimes throws them where they are not visible,” Stephen Hawking said of the paradoxical physics of black holes. Welcome to the bizarre quantum world of “strange metals” – a new state of matter.

“The fact that we call them strange metals must tell you how well we understand them. Strange metals share remarkable properties with black holes, opening up exciting new directions for theoretical physics, “says Olivier Parcollet, a senior researcher at the Center for Computational Quantum Physics (CCQ) at the Flatiron Institute, on the quantum world of metals dissipating energy as well. as far as the laws of quantum mechanics are concerned.The electrical resistance of a strange metal, unlike that of an ordinary metal, is proportional to the temperature.

Even by the standards of quantum physicists, reports the Flatiron Institute, strange metals are just strange. Creating a theoretical understanding of foreign metals is one of the biggest challenges in physically condensed matter. Now, using cutting-edge computer techniques, researchers from the Flatiron Institute and Cornell University have solved the first robust theoretical model of strange metals. The work reveals that strange metals are a new state of matter, the researchers report on July 22 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In the quantum mechanical world, electrical resistance is a byproduct of electrons pushing things. As electrons flow through a metal, other electrons or impurities in the metal bounce off. The longer there is between these collisions, the lower the electrical resistance of the material.

“Space-Changing Form” – Physicists Search for the Question to which the Universe is the Answer

For typical metals, electrical resistance increases with temperature, following a complex equation. But in unusual cases, such as when a high-temperature superconductor is heated just above the point where it stops superconducting, the equation becomes much simpler. In strange metal, electrical conductivity is bound directly to temperature and to two fundamental constants of the universe: the Planck constant and the Boltzmann constant.

Planck’s fundamental physical constant (H) binds the amount of energy a photon carries with the frequency of its electromagnetic wave. The Boltzmann constant of physics (k) occurs in almost every statistical formulation of both classical and quantum physics. The Planck scale sets the minimum limit of the universe, beyond which the laws of physics are broken.

Also Known as Planckian Metals

“In the late 1890s,” observes Symmetry, “physicist Max Planck proposed a set of units to simplify the expression of physical laws. Using only five constants in nature (including the speed of light and the gravitational constant), you, I and even Alpha Centauri aliens could reach these same Planck units. “

Therefore, strange metals are also called Plankkian metals.

“Quantum Sapiens” – Measurement of Quantitative Effects at the Human Scale

Models of strange metals have existed for decades, but just solving such models has proven unattainable by existing methods. Quantitative entanglements between electrons mean that physicists cannot treat the electrons individually, and the large number of particles in a material makes the calculations even more frightening.

Cornell doctoral candidate Peter Cha and his colleagues used two different methods to break the problem. First, they used a quantum input method based on ideas developed by CCQ director Antoine Georges in the early ’90s. By this method, instead of performing detailed computations across the entire quantum system, physicists make detailed calculations of only a few atoms and treat the rest of the system more simply. They then used a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (named after the Mediterranean casino), which uses random sampling to calculate the answer to a problem. The researchers solved the model of strange metals to absolute zero (minus 273.15 degrees Celsius), the unattainable lower limit for temperatures in the universe.

Strange metals as new matter

The resulting theoretical model reveals the existence of foreign metals as a new state of matter bordering on two previously known phases of matter: Mott-insulating spindles and Fermi liquids.

“We found that there is an entire region in the phase space that shows Planckian behavior that belongs to neither of the two phases between which we transition,” says Eun-Ah Kim, a professor of physics at Cornell. “This quantum respiratory fluid state is not as blocked, but it is also not completely free. It is a sluggish, soupa, slow state. It is metallic but reluctantly metallic, and it pushes the degree of chaos to the limit of quantum mechanics. “

“Ringing Black Holes”

The new work could help physicists better understand the physics of super-temperature superconductors. Perhaps surprisingly, the work has links to astrophysics. Like strange metals, black holes show properties that depend only on temperature and the Planck and Boltzmann constants, such as the time when a black hole “rings” after fusion with another black hole. “The fact that you find this same scale across all these different systems, from Planckian metals to black holes, is fascinating,” says Parcollet.

In addition to Parcollet, the research team consisted of Cha, CCQ associate data scientist Nils Wentzell, CCQ director Georges, and Cornell physics professor Eun-Ah Kim.

Source: Peter Cha et al, Linear resistivity and Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) spin liquid behavior in quantum critical metal with spin-1/2 fermions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2020). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2003179117

The Daily Galaxy, Max Goldberg by Symmetry and The Simons Foundation

Image credit: Shutterstock License

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